Let’s discuss about SQL here, the Introduction & datatypes that we use in databases to store data.
SQL: Structured Query Language
- A database computer language designed for the retrieval and management of data in a relational database
- Used to access and manipulate/manage databases
- SQL is the standard language for many commonly used Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) like MySQL, MS Access, Oracle, Sybase, Informix, Postgres and SQL Server.
Some Important notations/points:
- Semicolon (;) is suggested to use after each query, it generally denotes the end of a statement/query. Used necessarily, if multiple statements/queries are there on worksheet and have to be executed at once.
- SQL keywords are not case-sensitive, it means ‘select’ is as same as ‘SELECT’ or ‘Select’.
- NULL – Denotes a field with no value or unknown data, but not a field having values like zero(0) or space( ).
- CONSTRAINTS – Rules that used to limit the type of data into a column, e.g., unique value, restricting null value, etc.
- INDEX- Basically, a Search keyused to retrieve data from the database more quickly, it speeds up searches/queries.
SQL Data types define the type of input/value that can be stored in a column or field.
Data types can be divided broadly into various categories-
- Numeric Data types
- Non-Unicode Character String Data types
- Unicode Character String Data types
- Date and Time Data types
- Binary Data types
- Miscellaneous Data types
NOTE: As we know, there are many database management systems that use SQL as their standard languages, so Not all data types are supported for all.
e.g., Oracle doesn’t support DATETIME & My SQL doesn’t support CLOB data type.
We will mainly discuss the commonly used datatypes of “SQL server” here…
Numeric Data types-
bit – Integer either 0 or 1, storage space is of 1 bit only.
tinyint – Allows whole numbers from 0 to 255, storage space is of 1 byte(8 bits).
smallint – Allows Integers from -32,768 to 32,767 & storage space is of 2 bytes.
int – Allows Integers from -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 & storage space is of 4 bytes.
bigint – Allows Integers from -9,223,372,036, 854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036, 854,775,807 & storage space is of 8 bytes.
decimal(p,s) – Allow numbers from -1038 +1 to 1038 -1 & storage of 5-17 bytes.
Here, p represents ‘precision’ i.e., total length of characters/digits in the number(before & after decimal) & s represents ‘scale’ i.e., length of characters/digits after decimal only.
numeric(p,s) – Allow numbers from -1038 +1 to 1038 -1 & storage of 5-17 bytes.
Float(n) – Floating precision number from -1.79E+308 to 1.79E+308
Here, n specifies its size & precision.
For n=1-24, its precision is 7 digits and size is 4 bytes, & For n=25-53, its precision is 15 digits and size is 8 bytes.
Real – Floating precision number from -3.40E+38 to 3.40E+38 & storage of 4 bytes.
Money – Monetary data from -922,337,203,685,477.5808 to +922,337,203,685,477.5807 with storage space of 8 bytes
smallmoney – Monetary data from -214,748.3648 to 214,748.3647 with storage space of 4 bytes
Non-Unicode Character String Data types-
- Used for local languages, like English.
Char(n) – Fixed width with maximum length of 8,000 characters(can contain letters, numbers, and special characters) with defined storage.
Varchar(n) – Variable width with maximum length of 8,000 characters(can contain letters, numbers, and special characters) having storage of 2 bytes + number of characters.
Varchar(max) – Variable width with maximum length of 1,073,741,824 characters(can contain letters, numbers, and special characters) having storage of 2 bytes + number of characters
Not suppoted in MY SQL.
Text – Variable width with maximum length of 2 GB of text data having storage of 4 bytes + number of characters
Unicode Character String Data types- (Not supported in MYSQL)
- Used for multiple international languages like Hindi, English, etc.
nchar(n) – Fixed width with maximum length of 4,000 characters(can contain letters, numbers, and special characters) in Unicode string
nvarchar(n) – Variable width with maximum length of 4,000 characters(can contain letters, numbers, and special characters) in Unicode string
nvarchar(max) – Variable width with maximum length of 536,870,912 characters(can contain letters, numbers, and special characters) in unicode string
ntext – Variable width with maximum length of 1 GB of text data in Unicode string
Date & Time Data types-
datetime – From 1st January, 1753 to 31st December, 9999 having accuracy of 3.33 milliseconds with storage space of 8 bytes
datetime2 – From 1st January, 0001 to 31st December, 9999 having accuracy of 100 nanoseconds with storage space of 6-8 bytes
smalldatetime – From 1st January, 1900 to 6th June, 2079 having accuracy of 1 minute with storage space of 4 bytes
date – Date only, from 1st January, 0001 to 31st December 9999 with storage space of 3 bytes
time – Time only, having accuracy of 100 nanoseconds with storage space of 3-5 bytes
Binary Data types-
- Data which cannot easily be stored using character or numeric data types, such as Graphic images, pdf files.
binary – Fixed length binary data having maximum length of 8,000 bytes.
varbinary – Variable length binary data having maximum length of 8,000 bytes.
Varbinary(max) – Variable length binary data having maximum length of 2 GB. It can store image/word/pdf files.
image – Variable length binary data having maximum length of 2 GB. It stores only image files(BMP,TIFF,GIF,JPEG).
Miscellaneous Data types-
sql_variant – Stores up to 8,000 bytes of data of various data types, except text, ntext, and timestamp
uniqueidentifier – Stores a globally unique identifier GUID, a 16 byte binary SQL Server data type that is globally unique across tables, databases, and servers
xml – stores XML formatted data with maximum storage space of 2 GB
cursor – Reference to a cursor object used for database operations table – stores a result set for later processing
We are done with the basic introduction of SQL, and datatypes in different database management systems.
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